Diabetes and pregnancy – what are the risks for mom and baby
Pregnancy is a big burden on a woman’s body. And when any serious disease joins her, it is not surprising that it carries additional risks for both mother and baby.
Such serious pathologies include diabetes mellitus – a condition in which the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body is disturbed.
Diabetes in pregnant women
There are three types of diabetes that women who have a baby can suffer.
Even before pregnancy, the woman had type 1 diabetes mellitus (more often) or type 2 diabetes, she knew about her diagnosis and controlled the disease. In this case, she should carefully prepare for the upcoming pregnancy, during the gestation period, regularly undergo diagnostics, attend a antenatal clinic (clinic) more often than usual, be observed by a gynecologist and endocrinologist, go to the hospital several times for examination.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Before pregnancy, the woman had latent diabetes, or prediabetes, it did not manifest itself, it could not be determined by the usual glucose analysis. During pregnancy, such latent diabetes transforms into a manifest form. And then the symptoms of diabetes appear in the first weeks. Blood sugar also rises.
After the birth of a child, manifest diabetes usually goes into non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2).
Previously, a woman was healthy, but during pregnancy she develops diabetes. It is caused by the fact that during the restructuring of the body associated with the bearing of the child, and additional stress on the mother’s organs, the pancreas malfunctions. This entails a violation of carbohydrate metabolism – gestational diabetes. It usually proceeds without symptoms and first appears by the end of the second trimester.
After the birth of a child, gestational diabetes most often disappears, carbohydrate metabolism returns to normal.
There are factors that increase the likelihood of gestational diabetes:
overweight or obesity;
age over 35 years;
gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy;
according to ultrasound, a large fetus;
the outcome of previous birth – the death of a child for no apparent reason;
the previous child was born weighing more than 4 kg;
the baby was born with pathologies.
If the ultrasound revealed that the fetus is large, then there is a possibility of diabetes
Diabetes – a threat to women
When a woman had this disease before pregnancy, a sharp restructuring of the body can cause the development of complications specific to diabetes. And it is dangerous primarily because it violates the function of the kidneys (nephropathy), heart and blood vessels, affects vision (retinopathy).
The effect of diabetes directly on pregnancy is manifested by the fact that in women with diabetes mellitus, including those with gestational diabetes:
urinary tract infections develop;
the risk of late toxicosis – preeclampsia and eclampsia increases sharply;
high probability of miscarriage and premature birth;
often there is a premature detachment of the placenta;
childbirth is often performed using cesarean, which is associated with the large size of the fetus;
after childbirth, bleeding often develops.
Diabetes – a threat to the child
High values of blood sugar in the mother disrupt the fetal metabolism, which causes malfunctions in the formation of the baby’s organs. It can be born with hypoxia (oxygen starvation), disorders of the central nervous system, and diabetic fetopathy. This condition is characterized by:
enlarged internal organs;
violation of the proportions of the body: a long body, a large belly, too short arms and legs;
immaturity of basic life support systems;
The death of the child during childbirth is also possible.
How to avoid danger
In fact, everything is not so terrible. After all, it is not diabetes mellitus itself that is dangerous, but a constantly elevated level of sugar or its sudden jumps. If this is not allowed, the glucose level is constantly monitored, a diet is taken, if necessary, medications prescribed by the doctor, or injected with insulin, then all the terrible consequences can be avoided.
For diabetes before pregnancy, you need to constantly visit a doctor
And here, oddly enough, in a better position are women in whom the disease was diagnosed before pregnancy. They know about their disease, they can compensate for diabetes. They are constantly watched by experts, they regularly undergo examinations.
How is gestational diabetes dangerous during pregnancy? The fact that it is not always recognized. Symptoms appear late, they are not always paid attention to, considering them manifestations of pregnancy. And diabetes is uncompensated, that is, in the blood of the mother (and therefore the baby), sugar is constantly elevated.
As a result, diabetes is not diagnosed or diagnosed late, therefore, in the case of a gestational form of diabetes, the consequences are worse.
What should alert:
constant feeling of thirst;
itching and dry skin.